Welcome to Cornell! Disorientation Guide // 2014


Current View


Welcome to Cornell! Disorientation Guide // 2014




Ithaca, New York

extracted text

Cornell’s Index: Important Figures to Remember
$82,360 Estimated Undergrad Annual Tuition at Cornell in 5 years
9 years Estimated Time Until Annual Tuition Reaches $100,000
(time it will take for tuition, rising at current rate, to exceed 100k per


1 in 10 Cornell Direct Loan recipients currently defaulting
$2,000,000,000 The cost of the NYC tech campus, which was
created in partnership with Technion, an Israeli University
78.6% The percentage of civilians among the over 2,000 Gaza residents killed in the Israeli bombing and assault this year
Less than 30% The percentage of undergraduates who voted in
last year’s Student Assembly elections.
$30,000,000 The amount of property taxes Cornell would pay if it
were not classified as a non-profit institution “operating in the public
$1.25 million The amount Cornell actually pays to Ithaca
May 21st The Day That Finals Ended Last Year, also known as the
day in which President Skorton declared he would not fully fund firstyear bus passes
One Day The length of time prior to that announcement President
Skorton had last promised to fund bus passes to student activists
10-0-3 The final vote on University Assembly Resolution 14, which
asked that President Skorton fully commit the $500,000 required to
maintain bus passes in line with TCAT’s request. (The only abstentions were the sponsors of the legislation, which originally had sought
to cut bus passes completely.)

GUIDE // 2014
“Every empire, however, tells itself and the world that it is unlike all
other empires, that its mission is not to plunder and control but to
educate and liberate.” — Edward W. Said

Table of Contents
1// Cornell’s ongoing colonial occupation
2// Consolidating patriarchal power
3// Cornell doesn’t care about racism
4// Collaboration with genocide
5// Cornell is a degree factory
6// “Shared Governance” vs. actual governance
7// Cornell, TCAT workers, and the local
8// Cornell, counterinsurgency, internet policy
9// Championing “sustainability” over
environmental justice
10// Sexual violence and rape culture at Cornell
11// Cornell cannot be reformed



Assembly refused to hear a resolution to divest from Israeli occupation
that was sponsored by Cornell Students for Justice in Palestine. A coalition of students took over the next Student Assembly meeting, changing
the agenda to allow marginalized student voices to finally be heard and
acknowledged by the Assembly. After a show of overwhelming opposition
by students, University Assembly Resolution 14, which would have accepted the cutting of first-year bus passes, was rewritten to demand that
the university increase TCAT funding. On May 1st — the international
day of celebration of worker and immigrant rights — a huge procession
of students marched and danced in the streets after engaging in a mock
burial ceremony for the failed system of “shared governance” at Cornell,
and proceeded to blockade the road outside Day Hall before delivering a
letter to the President announcing a wide-ranging list of demands under
threat of continued escalated action against the University.
for more information about ongoing genocide against indigenous and First Nations peoples and on resistance movements
in North America, see reclaimturtleisland.com
for more information on opposing Cornell’s complicity in
Israeli apartheid, see cornellsjp.wix.com/home
Grrls Fight Back will meet on September 11 — email grrlsfightback@gmail.com for meeting details.
to find out about Direct Action trainings for ecodefense and
more, email ejsacornell@gmail.com
to get on the bandwagon for escalated anti-administration
action, email radorgcornell@gmail.com
email the same address to coordinate disrupting Cornell’s
fancy 150th birthday party that it’s throwing itself this year!
or just get with a crew and start doing stuff yourself, it’s more
fun than the lifetime of unrewarding office jobs that you’re
setting yourself up for if you stick to just doing all your

1 //

Congratulations on choosing Cornell!
Your dorm room is built on top of stolen land
and every day you’ll get to gaze upon the
stern stone faces of the white men who took
Did you know: Cornell’s “property” was originally seized from the Cayuga
Nation during a scorched earth campaign ordered by George Washington in 1779 (the goal of the campaign that Washington ordered was “the
total destruction and devastation of their settlements, and the capture of
as many prisoners of every age and sex as possible”). Members of the Cayuga Nation (one of the six nations of the Haudenosaunee Confederacy,
called the Iroquois by Europeans) are still looking to come back to their
ancestral homelands. At Cornell, there is no formal acknowledgement of
the colonial violence underlying the seizure of lands later granted to the
university or of Cornell’s ongoing occupation of native territories.

Cornell has a problematic relationship to
Ithaca too.
Cornell refuses to pay any more than $1.25 Million to the city of Ithaca
(Mayor Svante Myrick has requested that the university pay $6 Million,
which is 1/5 of what the actual tax bill would be for Cornell’s $2 Billion
in tax-free, occupied, stolen lands). Meanwhile, Cornell brings an influx
of temporary residents (students) who extract city services through the
university while giving nothing back; pays Ithaca residents poverty wages
to serve students drunk food at 1 am and clean their private mansions
(aka frat houses), while these temporary residents drive up rents in the
area and push the very same low-income Ithacans who clean up after
their extravagant parties into the surrounding area.
Goooooooo Big Red!


2 //

Cornell heartily encourages the consolidation of patriarchal class power and homophobia through fraternity culture.
Social life at Cornell is largely organized through huge all-male clubs that
each have their own fancy clubhouses and seem to be engaged in constant
battle with each other that is publicly measured in part by which all-female clubs the men get to sleep with. The all-female clubs spend a lot
of time evaluating their own self-worth through how attractive the men
think they are and calculating how to ensure their future basic security
and social recognition through dating and hooking up with the men.
Not everyone is actually in the clubs though! In fact, you could say that
the clubs actively exclude many people. Every year there is at least one
racist attack on people of color from fraternity members that becomes
public and temporarily embarrassing for the fraternity in question, and
several women report being date-raped, drugged and otherwise sexually
assaulted at frat parties. (Most people don’t report instances of sexual
assault because of the horrifying climate of victim-blaming that rape survivors have to face in addition to the psychological and physical trauma
of rape itself.) However, President Skorton and frat brothers report that
fraternities are not inherently racist, sexist or classist! They’re just a fun
way of consolidating class power by getting drunk together, doing stuff
to women without asking, ritualistically punishing one another, and harassing people who just happen to be on the other side of systemic social
Don’t pledge frats! They’re fucked up and boring.
Attacking frats is on the rise!


rape to be put in jail. An approach that is focused primarily on reporting and punishing individual cases of rape reflects a major problem with
the “criminal justice system” in general, which is that it focuses more on
criminalizing and punishing individuals than on actually addressing the
root of the problem within our culture and society. This is not to say that
perpetrators of rape don’t bear individual responsibility for these actions
or, as such, deserve to be treated as guilty.
The administration has consistently refused to confront the specific sources of sexual violence. For example, a recent study in the Journal of Student Affairs, Research, and Practice, based on a nationally conducted
survey, indicates that sorority women and fraternity men are more likely
than other students to be victims and perpetrators of sexual assault, respectively. However, in February 2014, two incidents of rape at fraternities were reported in one week, and the university did nothing.

11 // It’s unrealistic to expect Cornell to
reform itself.

Cornell isn’t a bad apple amongst other universities; it’s completely indicative of broader patterns in American education, government and economic institutions. It’s important to recognize that Cornell administrators
really aren’t here for our interests, that student government isn’t in a position to actually represent students, that Cornell’s historical and ongoing
purpose to educate some of the American population has always and can
only proceed through the subjugation and immiseration of others.
Last semester, after an onslaught of incidents and relatively transparent
attempts to consolidate administrative power at the expense of students
(tuition was raised by $1,920, the administration announced discontinuation of free student bus passes, two women were raped at fraternities in
one week, Haven’s [The LGBT Student Union] vice president who challenged its assimilationist agenda was ousted by university administrators,
the ALANA intercultural board’s funding was cut by nearly $25,000),
student resistance exploded in April when representatives on the Student

the victim, as in a friend or an acquaintance. This can happen at a party,
in one’s own apartment, on campus, at the workplace, or almost literally
anywhere. It is not always obvious, and it is not always possible to fight
In the way that universities have been handling cases of sexual violence
in recent years, they have generally made a few points exceptionally clear:
1. They do not actually prioritize the experiences and recoveries of the
survivors of sexual violence.
2. They are not seriously invested in actually punishing the perpetrators
of sexual violence on their campuses.
3. They are even less interested in actually combatting the cultural problems at the root of the issue (which is, in fact, largely a combination of
the first two points).
Creating a community in which survivors feel empowered to share their
stories and fully heal and be accepted is a critical component in developing a community that resists perpetuating rape culture. The University
has attempted (or at least claimed) to address this component, but it is evident that our current campus climate still is not one that inspires comfort
for those looking to deal openly with their experiences of sexual violence.
This, arguably, is due in many ways to the second point: how can survivors feel comfortable confronting their experience openly in a society in
which rape seems to not really deserve punishment? According to analysis
of Justice Department data, fewer than 95% of rapists ever actually face
prosecution. Only about 1 in 4 reports of rape actually leads to an arrest,
and only about 1 in 4 arrests actually leads to a conviction. At Cornell,
the story is no different. The University is apparently just as concerned
with its own prestige as it is with the actual emotional well-being of its students, and it will likely not be in a hurry to convict a young man of rape if
he comes from a wealthy and well-respected family that has the potential
to give plenty of monetary donations to the University in the future.
However, the solution is not necessarily just for more perpetrators of

3 // Cornell doesn’t care about racism.
Of all student concerns, though, the Administration especially ignores the
concerns of students of color. One of the more recent events that made
this evident was in the fall when the administration failed to condemn
university athletics for a clearly racist Cinco de Mayo-themed advertising
campaign that took place in October. Despite continued pressure from
MEChA de Cornell and specific suggestions for how to take proactive
measures to discuss and deter similar incidences of open racism in the
future, the University instead simply canceled the campaign without discussion. While “bias incidents” and racist microaggressions are a feature
of daily life for students of color on Cornell’s campus, the administration
treats the symptoms of this problem instead of actually intervening to
change students’ or their own internalized oppressive worldviews.

4 // But that’s not all! Cornell is also enthusiastically collaborating with genocide and
colonial occupation in Israel!

Since 2011, Cornell has been in the process of creating a massive applied
sciences and technology campus on Roosevelt Island in collaboration with
Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, a fun school that works with the
Israeli Army and Israel’s largest weapons producers to develop military
and arms technology that is employed by the Israeli military to maintain
its occupation of Palestine! This is the same occupation that killed 2,000
Palestinians this past summer and maintains the world’s largest open-air
prison (Gaza) in violation of international law.
The Caterpillar D9 Bulldozer was developed at Technion in Israel and
is used to demolish homes and other buildings in Palestinian territory in
order to pave the way for Israeli settlements. The destruction of private
property in occupied territory as well as the resulting forcible transfer of
residents are both in violation of the articles of the Fourth Geneva Convention. This unmanned bulldozer was also used in the carrying-out of

such atrocities as Operation Cast Lead (2009) and Operation Protective
Edge (2014) in which offensives the Israeli military killed over 1,400 and
2,000 Palestinians, respectively.

10 //

Technion also has strong partnerships with Israeli military technology
companies Elbit Systems and Rafael Advanced Defense Systems. Rafael
Defense Systems is owned by the Israeli government, is the country’s largest manufacturer of military technology, and has historically maintained
close ties to Technion through research and project-based partnerships.
Elbit Systems is responsible for the production of the electronic detection
fence, which is a crucial component of the separation wall that Israel has
established in the West Bank, and which was deemed illegal under international law by the International Court of Justice in 2004.Their technology is also widely used in implementing Israeli “security” operations
that restrict Palestinian freedom of movement and exchange of goods
through the use of checkpoints and other forms of border control.

“Rape culture” is a set of widely adopted cultural practices that normalize sexual violence and make it seem like a simply inevitable and even
somewhat acceptable component of society, particularly when directed
towards women. It arises from problematic societal attitudes about gender, sex, and sexuality, and is evidenced by such practices as blaming victims of sexual violence and trivializing the issue of rape.

In October 2011, Cornell police chief Kathy Zoner attended an “Experience Israel Training Tour” in Tel Aviv, through which she was given a
behind-the-scenes look at Israel’s “security operations” and “counterterrorism initiatives”. Cornell funded Zoner’s trip to Israel, and she became
the first police chief of a university to take the tour.
Zoner describes the tour as being “very neat...with lots of hands-on experience,” and claims that what she learned will be applicable to her job of
“keeping the campus free from external threats”. Upon returning to the
US, Zoner presented her new knowledge to members of the Department
of Homeland Security and instructed the Executive Committee of the
Nation Sheriffs’ Association on “high quality security.”

We need to consider where we are placing the burden for the prevention
of sexual assault as well as what factors are really responsible for the prevalence of rape culture on campus. Rape culture is perpetuated by organizations that champion male dominance and heterosexual male power.
That is, it is not perpetuated by women who want to go out looking sexy
for the sake of going out and looking sexy (it is, however, perpetuated by
the people who reinforce the idea that looking sexy is an unspoken invitation). It is also perpetuated by people who hear about rape and simply
laugh it off, primarily blame alcohol, treat sexual violence as though it is
simply inevitable, and jokingly tell women not to get raped on their way
home but don’t seriously tell men not to rape anyone at the party tonight.
Contrary to one brilliantly written piece in last year’s Daily Sun, one does
not need to be an actual rapist in order to be complicit in the perpetuation of rape culture.



Sexual violence and rape culture at

President Skorton has acknowledged the problem of sexual violence on
university campuses (although not explicitly rape culture at Cornell), and
his response is that “each of us and all of us is responsible for the change
we want to see.” This is an incredibly meaningless statement that fails to
acknowledge any of the actual causes of prevalent sexual violence.

When Cornell offers self-defense classes or improves its blue-light policies, it addresses the problem of sexual assault only as one that occurs in
dark, scary places, when you are walking home alone in the middle of the
night and a creepy hooded figure jumps out of the bushes to attack you.
That is not the reality of rape and of the majority of sexual assault on
this campus. 70% of sexual assault is committed by attackers who know

corporate interests are fundamentally antagonistic to the desires and
well-being of its students and the world.
While Cornell has spent $200 million on carbon neutrality, it has refused
to divest from fossil fuel corporations. Although three out of the four Assemblies in the so-called “Shared Governance” system passed a hard-won
resolution for divestment from fossil fuels, the University has refused to
take action on the resolution due to its entanglement with corporate fossil
fuel interests.
Meanwhile, Cornell has branded itself as a “sustainable campus,” which
is sexy, popular, the kind of thing that will encourage students to come to
this university (read: attract people’s money). Cornell is contributing to
a more sustainable future for its happy, green, already largely privileged
students! What it is failing to acknowledge is the way in which the actions
of fossil fuel companies already disproportionately affect low-income and
minority populations, and the ways in which climate change is already
beginning to have a global, irreversible impact that disproportionately
affects impoverished nations and groups of people who have the least
complicity in the actual anthropogenic causes of climate change.
At Cornell, you will be encouraged to fill up your water bottle from the
water fountain, so as to save plastic (which is good - you should do that).
However, you will probably not be encouraged to have a conversation
about the way in which bottled water corporations have worked to exploit lower-GDP nations by privatizing and commoditizing their water
resources. You probably won’t be asked to consider the fact that (largely
low-income, black) residents of Detroit have spent this past summer unable to “take back” their taps, because their government already did it for
them, by shutting off their tap water.



5 // Cornell is a degree factory that is actively antagonistic to student interests.

While Cornell’s students have many concerns beyond how much money
Cornell is making — ranging from the destruction of the environment
to the racism occurring on campus — the university tends to do nothing about these concerns except rhetorically, because it primarily exists
for its own profit. This means that student and even faculty interests are
frequently almost entirely at odds with those of the Cornell administration, as the University increasingly adopts the degree factory model of
education that is becoming widespread in the U.S. For example, despite
student and faculty resistance, administrators pressure graduate students
to speed through their research before throwing them out onto a collapsing academic job market. Moreover, according to data from The Adjunct
Project, Cornell pays some adjunct faculty as little as $6,300 per course.
With a heavy teaching load, most adjuncts cannot dedicate meaningful
amounts of time to publishing research and advancing their careers. They
have no job security because they have no possibility of being tenured.
And neither Cornell nor universities at large are committed to creating
new tenure-track positions. Meanwhile, at Cornell in 2009, the top 16
executives made more than $20,000,000, including a $300,000 pension
for former president Hunter Rawlings III.
The problem is not just with Cornell, but with higher education in general. The crisis of higher education is a crisis of capitalism. In a system
marked by overproduction, growing debt, and stagnant capital, universities function by charging students a fortune to prepare them for jobs that
largely won’t exist for them, while corporations continue to operate by
exploiting a working (and largely non-university educated) class that is
increasingly paid unlivable wages.
As we consider the real value of a present-day university education, it is
important to point out that you are still much more likely to be employed
if you hold a university degree than if you don’t. However, this is not necessarily cause to rejoice. In today’s economy, degree-holders are increasingly being employed for jobs for which they are overqualified (and for
which they seriously overpaid in college), thereby forcing those without

cut the number of employees, and lose their medical benefits in order
to deal with TCAT’s deficit. By failing to pay what it owes to TCAT, the
University is expressing its open antagonism towards TCAT bus drivers
and their livelihoods.

8 // Cornell, Counterinsurgency, Internet

Remember that Facebook “emotional contagion” study that manipulated
thousands of people’s Newsfeeds and involved them in a study in which
they didn’t consent to participating? That was a Cornell study. In addition
to failing to meet Cornell’s own IRB requirements for ethical research,
this study is part of a broader Pentagon-funded program called the “Minerva Research Initiative.” According to the Guardian, the Cornell study,
which is happening from 2014-2017, “will determine ‘the critical mass
(tipping point)’ of social contagions by studying their ‘digital traces’ in the
cases of ‘the 2011 Egyptian revolution, the 2011 Russian Duma elections,
the 2012 Nigerian fuel subsidy crisis and the 2013 Gezi park protests
in Turkey.’” Cornell has been involved in counterinsurgency research at
least since the Vietnam War. As we have recently seen with the protests
following the murder of Michael Brown in Ferguson, counterinsurgency
tactics, formed as a result of research like this study, are used in domestic
unrest as well as unjust wars abroad.

9 // Championing “sustainability” over
environmental justice

If you’ve chosen Cornell, there’s a decent chance that you’ve heard about
its reputation as a champion of “sustainability.” Indeed, Cornell has gotten a lot of credit for its Climate Action Plan, which includes a proposal
to have the university become carbon neutral by the year 2035. This, of
course, is not necessarily a bad thing, but when taken in light of Cornell’s
other environmental decisions, it further indicates that the University’s

7 //

Cornell, TCAT Workers, and the Local
Congratulations on your free first-year bus pass! Freshman bus passes were almost revoked this year, because TCAT had the audacity to require that
Cornell pay an appropriate fee to cover its student ridership. Fortunately,
President David J. Skorton was able to devise a brilliant plan through
which Cornell managed to maintain its free bus passes without actually
agreeing to increase its level of funding for TCAT. In other words, the administration said “fuck you” to TCAT and went on with business as usual.
Cornell was going to revoke first-year bus passes because TCAT, which is
currently running a huge deficit, asked the University to increase its funding by approximately $500,000 per year. Of the roughly $700,000 total
deficit that TCAT is currently running, this is the portion that is due to
Cornell’s failure to keep up with increased student ridership by not simultaneously increasing its total funding to TCAT. Instead of complying with
this request, the administration’s initial response was to simply revoke
freshman bus passes and allocate the current TCAT funding elsewhere.
However, after significant student protest last semester, the administration
decided that, as much as it is happy to disregard the needs of TCAT bus
drivers, it apparently does actually care about giving students their firstyear bus passes.
With this move, the administration attempted to placate students while
still screwing over the people who make their transportation possible.
Cornell can get away with ignoring TCAT’s demands because TCAT has
no leverage. It would be even worse for the TCAT system if Cornell were
actually to revoke its first-year bus passes, thereby significantly decreasing
ridership and further cutting funds to TCAT. Cornell students account
for 80% of TCAT ridership, and getting rid of free first-year bus passes
would have absolutely gutted this system.
The University’s failure to properly fund TCAT will have severe implications in workers’ contract negotiations, in which they have been involved
for months. The last time TCAT bus drivers negotiated a contract, the
agreement they reached was that the workers would take a pay freeze,

degrees into lower-paying, less desirable jobs.
Of course, there are the few who are trained and encouraged to work
their way to positions of power and privilege, at the heads of multinational corporations for example. Cornell will encourage you to fight for
one of these positions, to follow the money, and to not consider how you
might be doing so at the expense of your fellow students (or non-students).

6 // “Shared Governance” . . . and Actual

“Shared Governance” is the system of advisory bodies that supposedly
“represent” students, workers, and faculty. The early iterations of these
bodies were formed as a way to placate student demands for the restructuring of the University following the Willard Straight Takeover in 1969
and the occupation of Barton Hall by 10,000 students. In 1970, the year
of the largest student strike in Cornell History, the Trustees decided to
create the “University Senate,” which had mandatory representation for
students, workers, and faculty. It is worth noting that no campus body has
ever given real power to stakeholders from the local community.
Over the years, the Trustees gradually reformed away student, faculty, and worker power to the point where, today, they only give advisory
votes with no binding power. Historically, these legislative bodies have
not served as a way to powerfully amplify community demands to the
Administration (the way a Union would) but as a way of mediating “conflicts” among the student body and with the University (the way a police
negotiator would). At best, the Assemblies are a way that the Administration pacifies and de-mobilizes the community, trying to convince us that
everything is fine and we are being heard. At worst, the Assemblies are
a divide-and-conquer tactic, pitting students against students, or workers
against students, in the hopes of keeping the heat off of the Trustees’ and
the Administration.
There are four main legislative bodies that operate with a combination of

elected, appointed, and volunteer positions.

only token powers in terms of University policy.

The Student Assembly (SA): Because the Student Assembly has only
symbolic power to advocate for student interests, there is an extremely
low turnout for elections. The races are decided primarily by the candidate with the largest, wealthiest, and most powerful social network. Consequently, a disproportionate number of seats are won by members of
Frats and Sororities.

The University Assembly (UA): The University Assembly is supposed
to be a body that represents the constituencies of the other three Assemblies, but it doesn’t always act that way. Late last Spring, the UA voted
down a resolution to divest from top fossil fuel companies that had been
passed by significant majorities of both the SA and the Faculty Senate.

The Faculty Senate: A recent report shows that Faculty Governance
has been cut back significantly in the past decade, with the University demarcating an increasingly large territory of “non-academic” policy that
disempowers the faculty. This prerogative to “non-academic” matters
lets the trustees unilaterally decide how best to squeeze even more money
out of students, faculty, and workers, without even making a pretense of
consulting the people who these decisions affect. For example, the President disbanded the College of Architecture, Art, and Planning without
consulting anyone in the college on the matter. Another time, the administration decided to pave the historic and beloved Redbud Woods to build
a parking lot (as part of their project to spend lots of money on “upgrading” student housing into the unaffordable administration money-maker
it is today). Massive student, faculty, worker, and community opposition
sparked heated protests that lasted for months. But the administration
secured a court order against the town of Ithaca’s attempt to stop them,
then ordered police to torture students standing in the way of construction equipment until they moved. Administration has done everything
from blatantly ignoring the Faculty Senate’s passage of a resolution demanding improved adjunct working conditions, to creating a for-profit
online learning site where those with enough cash can buy a “career-advancing” “Ivy-league” certificate without asking faculty if they wanted
to create such a program (they didn’t, but google “eCornell” and see the
results). Consequently, Faculty Senate can now do nothing but form committees to carefully research and consider different potential approaches
to problems before being ignored.

Actual Governance:
Cornell is governed by a group of 64 trustees. Of those 64, one is President Skorton, one is elected by employees, and two are elected by students (one undergrad and one grad student). The rest are current and
former CEO’s of international corporations, corporate consultants, corporate lawyers, bankers and finance executives, venture capitalists, and
politicians. Many of them are profiting off of student loan financing.
In 2010, Cornell took out $285 million in bonds from the New York
State Dormitory Authority for new “capital projects.” Goldman Sachs
underwrote the loan, profiting off of it. The Senior Director of Goldman
Sachs, Robert J. Katz, was the Vice Chairman of the Board of Trustees
at the time. Of the 1%, by the 1%, for the 1%. Remember this when they
tell you they “have no money.”
When not using their position to protect their own personal interests, the
Board and their hired Administration have the main function of protecting Cornell’s wealth and prestige through fundraising and spreading Cornell’s brand. This means that now that you are a student, your concerns
will be taken less seriously than at any time in your life: before you apply,
you are a prospective student and Cornell wants your demand to make it
appear more selective; after you graduate, you will be a potential donor
(unless you never pay back those student loans!).

The Employee Assembly: While many workers at Cornell are Unionized, and many Graduate Students are pushing to even be recognized as
“employees” entitled to rights to unionize, the Employee Assembly holds


Item sets